This technical study follows on a report detailing conditions for early childhood development (ECD) across the Arab region using the newest waves of national health surveys. Both the typical level of opportunities and inequality in opportunities across various socio-economic groups are reviewed, to assess the nature of progress. Where appropriate, discussion of conditions before and after the events of the Arab Spring is provided. Several indicators of children’s opportunities are recalculated from the previous studies to facilitate comparability over time.

The study is organized as follows. Section II describes the available data and outlines the approach taken in the empirical analysis. Section III presents main results, and discusses what they reveal about ECD opportunities across countries, across socioeconomic groups, and over time. Section IV sets out the conclusions and recommendations.