Travel restrictions and border closures have been an important part of the initial policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and these measures have directly affected trade in goods and services. They have disrupted freight transport, business travel and the supply of services that rely on the presence of individuals abroad. Transport and travel costs constitute an important part of trade costs, and, depending on the sector, are estimated to account for 15 to 31 per cent. Travel restrictions are therefore likely to account for a substantial increase in trade costs for as long as they remain in place